Clumber Park, Nottinghamshire
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Clumber Park was once part of Sherwood Forest until John Holles, Earl of Clare was granted by Queen Anne in 1707 to enclose it to create a deer park. The development of Clumber to a sporting estate was begun by the 2nd Duke of Newcastle, commissioning Wright to build a Palladian house, alongside the Lincoln stables and classic bridge which survive today. Simpson, following Wrights death, was brought in to continue the building with the Greek and Roman Temples and some of the entrance lodges which can also still be seen. A fire in 1879 saw the house partially destroyed and rebuilt to the designs of Charles Barry Jr. The gardens were landscaped with stone terraces and fountains of Italian marble. Building began on the Kitchen Garden in 1772 and was renovated and expanded many times, six acres are now still in cultivation. The 7th Duke demolished the old stove houses installing a new long range, a continuous system of 12 glasshouses, completing them in 1908. This range is home to a collection of gardening tools and is the longest in National Trust ownership. The 19th century Dukes were important figures, the 4th an opponent of parliamentary reform and his empty mansion, Nottingham Castle, was burnt down by protesters. The 5th Duke held important political posts and the future Prime Minister, Gladstone was a frequent visitor to Clumber. The 6th Duke bankrupted the estate through gambling and left a teenage heir. The 7th Duke a highly religious man built the current Chapel provided a house and school for the choir boys in the park. The Chapel is a magnificent example of gothic revival architecture with lavish furnishings reflecting the Anglo-Catholic movement, designed by Bodley with works by Geldart, Kempe and Comper many of these items remain at Clumber now. Following the death of the 7th Duke in 1928 the Park fell into decline with the contents of the mansion sold in 1937 and the mansion taken down the following year. A new house was never built and the park was requisitioned by the War Department in 1929, Churchill visited the site at this time to watch trials of a new trench digging machine the scars of which can still be seen on the park.